African star apple is a tropical edible fruit that is widely consumed among Nigerians. An acceptable FS with good anti-stress potential has been developed to further expand the utilization for ASA. This is the adsorption data that was used for this study. The straight-line plot of log (qe-qt) against t gives log (qe) as slope and intercept equal to k1/2.303. ASA were washed, de-pulped, oven-dried (65 °C, 18 h) and milled (≤180 µm). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2017.04.004. A literature review is a survey of scholarly sources that provides an overview of statement or the study’s goals or purpose. After the first two hours, the rate of reduction of the dye decreases until equilibrium was reached after 5 hours of contact time for all the three seed shells with different activation. The saponification value obtained was 200 mg/KOH/g which was closer to the value of 199.50 mg/KOH/g obtained for Adebayor, Orhevba [27]. Albidum to determine the optimum conditions for the extraction of the oil and also to characterize the oil extracted and determine its physicochemical properties. Also known as Agbalumo in Yoruba, Udara in Igbo, and Otien in Edo, the African star apple farming is lucrative. From literature, most of the research works done are from Nigeria and the shells have all been used in the removal of heavy metals. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. They are known by a variety of different names such as golden-leaf tree, caimito maduraverde in Spain, caimite and caimitier in France and cainito and ajara in Portugal. FT-IR spectroscopy was used to identify the various functional groups present in the oil. Possible bioactives were investigated using Gas-Chromatography Mass-Spectrometry. The oil was extracted using hexane with the soxhlet apparatus at a temperature of 65°C for 4 hours. Apple Inc.. ( formerly Apple Computer, Inc.) is an American multinational corporation that designs and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and personal computers. B. Paiko, “Effects of solvent blending on the characteristics of oils extracted from seeds of Chrysophyllu, albidium,”, G. Nimet, “Extraction of sunflower (Heliantus annuus L.) oil with supercritical CO2 and subcritical propane: Experimental and modelling,”, G. Cao, E. Sofic, and R. L. Prior, “Antioxidant capacity of tea and common vegetables,”, H. Wang, G. H. Cao, and R. L. Prior, “Total antioxidant capacity of fruits,”, Y. S. Velioglu, G. Mazza, L. Gao, and B. D. Oomah, “Antioxidant activity and total phenolics in selected fruits, vegetables, and grain products,”, F. M. Oloyede and F. A. Oloyede, “The Antioxidant and Food value of Chrysophyllum albidium,”, D. S. Olorunnisola, “Anti-hyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of ethanolic extract of chrysophyllum albidum seed cotyledon in alloxan induced-diabetic rats,”, S. Sayyar, Z. Chemical activation with CaCl2 seems not to perform as efficient as that of the ZnCl2 and MgCl2 as shown in Figure 2. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Generally, the roots, barks, and leaves of Chrysophyllum albidum are widely used as an application to sprains, bruises, and wounds in southern Nigeria [10]. The kinetics of the adsorption favoured a pseudo-first-order reaction pathway for CaCl2 with R2 of 0.941 while ZnCl2 and MgCl2 favoured a pseudo-second-order reaction pathway with R2 of 0.914 and 0.973, respectively. Activities of antioxidant enzymes were largely boosted by the Food supplement. Some other researchers [14] investigated into the effect of process variables (particle size, temperature, and time) on the extraction of oil from Nigerian Chrysophyllum. December 2014 . In good oil, the acid value should be very low (< 0.1) and an increase in acid value is an indicator of oxidation of the oil which may lead to gum and sludge formation beside corrosion. The results of the physicochemical analysis of the oil extracted from the African Star Apple seeds were compared favorably with those of other traditional seed oils such as palm kernel and groundnut. The chemical activation of the pyrolised and powdered Chrysophyllum albidum shell was performed using 0.5M aqueous solutions of each CaCl2, MgCl2, and ZnCl2. African literature is literature of or from Africa and includes oral literature (or "orature", in the term coined by Ugandan scholar Pio Zirimu).. As George Joseph notes in his chapter on African literature in Understanding Contemporary Africa, whereas European views of literature often stressed a separation of art and content, African awareness is inclusive: The pseudo-first-order equation fitted the experimental data well for CaCl2 (R2 = 0.94) while MgCl2 (R2 = 0.97) and ZnCl2 (R2 = 0.97) fitted the pseudo-second-order equation. Writing a literature review is the next task in progressing with my Ph.D. The FTIR analysis of the extracted oil was also found to contain some functional groups. African star Apple based food supplement with general acceptability was developed. Percentage reduction of dyes with time (hrs). The experiment was conducted under room temperature of 25 C. The change in concentration of the dye with time could be seen in the date above. ( Ronald Wayne. An investigation on the antioxidant and food value of Chrysophyllum albidum showed the plant contains some phenol, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and proanthocyanidin and also a high antioxidant value [9]. This is different from values of 2.57 mg/KOH/g by Musa, Isah [30], 4.50 mg/KOH/g for Adebayor, Orhevba [27], and 19.70 mg/KOH/g for Ominyi, Ominyi [31]. A Nicolet 870 spectrometer which was equipped with a deuterated triglycine sulphate detector was used. Uses, Benefits, Cures, Side Effects, Nutrients in Star Apple. The oil yield of 11.6% was low as compared to oil from palm kernel oil (45.6%) and groundnut oil (35.76%) [41] The physicochemical properties of the African Star Apple seed oil indicated that it is nondrying (saponification value of 200mg/KOH/g) and can be used as a feedstock for production of soaps, lubricating oils, and lighting candles. This research work was self-funded by the authors. It was however higher than that of Ominyi, Ominyi [31] which was 90.71 mg/KOH/g but lower for Musa, Isah [30] who reported 228.4 mg/KOH/g. First of all, Apple’s product line encompasses a series of brilliant and distinctive products, such as Mac (Macintosh), iPod, iPhone and iPad; and in the mean time the designers of Apple Inc. are improving and innovating on their product line constantly. The spectral analysis as displayed in Figure 1 shows the various peaks of the functional groups present in the oil. The acid value is an important indicator of oxidation of the oil. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Once again, the cotyledons contained in the african star apple seeds have an anti-hyperglycemia effect that has an effect on the decrease in high … This could be an advantage as oil with high free fatty acids developing off-flavor during storage [36]. Names of Star Apple in various languages of the world are also given. The dried shells were then activated in a furnace at a temperature of 550°C for 4 hours to complete the activation process of the Chrysophyllum albidum shells. Drivers and challenges to people’s empowerment . According to a report published by the African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, the leaves of the star apple tree and to some extent the flesh of the fruit itself, possess some chemical nutrients which have similar properties to insulin found in the body, and believed to effectively reduce blood sugar levels. LITERATURE REVIEW . A Mohammed et al., “Extraction of chrysophyllum albidum seed oil: optimisation and characterisation,”, C. E. Ominyi, C. J. Ominyi, and U. Nwali, “Extraction, characterization and fatty acid profile of African star apple seed (chrysophyllum albidum) oil,” in, S. R. Antony, D. S. smart, and C. R. Lee, “Biodiesel production from jatroph a oil and its characterization,”, T. F. Akinhanmi, V. N. Atasie, and P. O. Akintokun, “Chemical composition and physicochemical properties of cashew nut (, U. D. Akpabio and I. Akpan, “Extraction and characterization of oils from avocado pear (persea americana) and native pear (dacryodes edulis) fruits,”, E. Akbar, Y. Zahira, K. K. Siti, I. Manal, and S. Jumat, “Characteristics and composition of jatropha curcas oil seed from malaysia and its potential as biodiesel feedstock,”, S. M. Mahale and A. S. Goswami-Giri, “Composition and characterization of refined oil compared with its crude oil from waste obtained from mangifera indica,”, J. M. Nzikou, L. Matos, G. Bouanga-Kalou et al., “Chemical composition on the seeds and oil of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) grown in Congo-Brazzaville,”, E. Zahir, R. Saeed, M. A. Hameed, and A. Yousuf, “Study of physicochemical properties of edible oil and evaluation of frying oil quality by Fourier Transform-Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy,”, S. Anwer, El-Badry., and S. S. Ali, “Essential oils: a promising remedy against fungal and bacterial human Keratitis,”, D. K. Kowanga, G. O. Mauti, and E. Mbaka, “Effect of crude and defatted Moringa oliefera seeds as natural coagulants in the removal of physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters from turbid river water,”, S. Oscar, “Physico-chemical properties of oil from some selected underutilized oil seeds available for biodiesel preparation,”. ‎Africa is a book of poems where each poem reads like a short story. The mixtures were then agitated with a hot plate agitator at 200rpm and 60°C for four hours. From Figure 2, it is observed that the rate of dye reduction generally increased rapidly within the first two hours of contact time for all three shells with different activation chemicals. At various points of the literature review, key questions will be raised linking the review aspects back to the research problem and sub-problems. The fruit also contains good amounts of vitamins A and C (higher, in fact than levels … The Star Apple is of the family Sapotaceae and relative of the mamey sapote and the green sapote. This research work was undertaken to determine the physicochemical parameters of oil from the seeds of African Star Apple (Chrysophyllum albidum) and further evaluate the adsorptive properties of the fruit shell. It is the weight (mg) of potassium hydroxide required to neutralize the free acid in 1 g of the oil. Hence, the amount of solute sorbed per gram of sorbent at equilibrium (qe) and the first-order rate constant (k1) can be evaluated from the slope and intercept. The extract was then heated to recover the solvent with a rotary evaporator (R00102439, 50W/15A) leaving behind the extracted oil. A Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) study on the oil identified some triglycerides, carbonyl, alkane, and alkene compounds. 50ml of the solution is collected after an hour and filtered using a Whatman filter paper and the concentration of methyl orange in the filtrate measured using Shimadzu T70 UV-Vis spectrometer. Chemical parameters and sensory attributes were determined. Description: As the official publication of the Division on Black American Literature and Culture of the Modern Language Association, the quarterly journal African American Review promotes a lively exchange among writers and scholars in the arts, humanities, and social sciences who hold diverse perspectives on African American literature and culture. Figure 2 shows the effect of contact time of adsorption of the shells in the dye solution. List of various diseases cured by Star Apple. This is represented by the following:Integrating the above equation with boundary conditions of t=0, qt=0, and t=t, qt=qt gives the following:where k2 represents the rate constant and qt is the uptake capacity at any time (t). Adsorptive studies of the fruit shell for the removal of dye were also performed after chemical activation with CaCl2, MgCl2, and ZnCl2. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Researchers suggest that the African star apple fruit also known locally as ‘Alasa’ is an edible fruit of uncommon nutritional value. The flask was then allowed to cool and the percentage yield was determined. There are two different varieties of Star Apples one with purple skin and one with green skin. The pyrolyzed shells were milled into a powdery form and sieved with a laboratory mesh of size +500μm. The report illustrates the application of the major analytical strategic frameworks in business studies such as SWOT, PESTEL, Porter’s Five Forces, Value Chain analysis, Ansoff Matrix and McKinsey 7S Model on Apple. Imaginative and inspiring, Author Wilson Ayinbangya Amooro displays a refreshing and unique literary style th… I have been reading and taking notes and I know, in theory, that my review should bring many aspects of a work together in a smooth and efficient manner. Extraction and Characterisation of African Star Apple (, Department of Chemistry, Industrial Chemistry Unit, School of Physical Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana, Department of Chemistry, Water and Sanitation Unit, School of Physical Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana, R% is the percentage recovery of methyl orange from the solution, http://www.worldagroforestry.org/af/treedb/, J. E. Ehiagbonare, H. I. Onyibe, and E. E. Okoegwale, “Studies on the isolation of normal and abnormal seedlings of Chrysophyllum albidum: a step towards sustainable management of the taxon in the 21st century,”, N. A. Amusa, O. This property makes the leaves/fruits useful medically, for the treatment of type two diabetes though … African star apple – also known as white star apple, “cherry”, agbalumo (Yoruba), udara (Igbo) and otien (Edo) – in Nigeria, is associated with the dry season. The functional groups identified within the wavelength of 1709 – 1744 cm−1 were compared to oil from Chamomile and Rosemary by Anwer S. El-Badry, and Sameh S. Ali [39] as well as the Corn and Mustard oil to represent C= O ester carbonyl of triglycerides [39]. The equilibrium rate constants and correlation coefficient for the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models are presented in Table 3. On the basis of the correlation coefficient, the adsorption of Methyl orange dye from solution by shells of Chrysophyllum albidum activated with CaCl2 follows a first-order reaction pathway while the shells activated with MgCl2 and ZnCl2 follows a second-order pathway. Ripe African Star Apples are savoury-sweet and tart in taste. ‎THE SENSATIONAL ADVENTURE FROM THE #1 BESTSELLING AUTHOR ‘Deadly conspiracies, bone-crunching action and a tormented hero with a heart . African star apple fruit pulp‐supplemented diet modulates fertility‐related biomolecules in the testis and epididymis of high‐fat diet/streptozotocin‐induced diabetic rats The adsorption studies of Methyl orange dye solution of the fruit shell of the Chrysophyllum albidum activated with MgCl2, CaCl2, and ZnCl2 were performed. The results showed an average oil yield obtained of 11.6%, specific gravity of 0.92kg/m3, the refractive index of 1.464 at 30°C, an acid value of 7.72 mg KOH/g, a free fatty acid value of 3.16 g/100g, saponific… Impact on oxidative stress marker - malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) were monitored in Rats stressed and fed FS. Oil from plant and animal are employed in the formulation of foods, cosmetics, and drugs in many industrial activities [5]. The aim of this research paper is to extract and characterise oil from Chrysophyllum albidum fruit seed from Ghana and use the seed shell as an adsorbent in the removal of methyl orange (dye) from aqueous solutions. Blending with pre-gelatinized starch (pulp:starch, 7:3) followed, yielding the FS. The overall performance of the three shells shows that ZnCl2 performed slightly better than MgCl2 in reducing the concentration of Methyl orange in the solution. Most plant seeds are a source of essential oils. More extensive information about the journal is available here. ZnCl2 and MgCl2 exhibit similar reduction characteristics on the dye. 2019, Article ID 4959586, 8 pages, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/4959586, 1Department of Chemistry, Industrial Chemistry Unit, School of Physical Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana, 2Department of Chemistry, Water and Sanitation Unit, School of Physical Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana. African star apple validated to reduce blood sugar, cholesterol By CHUKWUMA MUANYA, Assistant Editor (Head Insight Team, Science and Technology) 07 January 2016 | 6:10 am Africa Review, Volume 12, Issue 2 (2020) Articles . However, it may not be suitable for the production of surface coatings, varnishes, and oil paints due to its nondrying attribute. The authors declare no conflicts of interest. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. It was then pyrolyzed in a furnace (Nabertherm, LE140K1BN, 230V, 1/N/PE) at a temperature of 500°C for two hours. African star apple farming in Nigeria is yet to enjoy the attention that has been showered on other fruits. The use of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer to determine the functional groups has been reported by various researchers [28, 29]. ( Steve Wozniak . . Physical and chemical parameters of the African Star Apple seed oil (Chrysophyllum albidum) are presented in Table 1. The African star apple food supplement formulation was produced by blending African star apple pulp powder and pre-gelatinized starch in different ratios - 9:1, 8:2, 7:3, 6:4, 5:5, 4:6, 3:7, 2:8, and 1:9 respectively. Former : Steve Jobs. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Low free fatty acids content is indicative of low enzymatic hydrolysis. It is published twice annually, once in spring and once in fall. A. Orhevba, P. A. Adeoye, J. J. Musa, and O. J. Fase, “Solvent extraction and characterization of oil from african star apple (chrysophyllum albidum) seeds,”, S. E. Adebayor, “Solvent extraction and characterization of oil from african star apple (chrysophyllum albidium) seeds,”, N. Ahalya, R. D. Kanamadi, and T. V. Ramachandra, “Biosorption of chromium (VI) from aqueous solutions by the husk of Bengal gram (Cicer arientinum),”, K. A. Krishnan and T. S. Anirudhan, “Removal of cadmium(II) from aqueous solutions by steam-activated sulphurised carbon prepared from sugar-cane bagasse pith: Kinetics and equilibrium studies,”, M. Umaru, A. G. Isah, I. ‎This course is a study of the periods and major genres of African-American Literature – poetry, prose, drama, vernacular tradition, essays, and non-fiction. We will take a look at African Star Apple, known in Ga as Alasa. The tree grows as a wild plant and belongs to the family of Sapotaceae which has up to 800 species and constitutes almost half of the order [1]. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Development and evaluation of African star apple (, 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (PubChem CID: 237332), 2,5-Furandione, dihydro-3-methylene (PubChem CID: 75110), 4H-Pyran-4-one, 2,3-dihyro-3, 5-dihydroxy-6-methyl (PubChem CID: 119838). Their results showed that the oil yield was of 21.57% and acid values were of 2.87. A. Abia, M. Horsfall Jr., and O. Didi, “The use of chemically modified and unmodified cassava waste for the removal of Cd, Cu and Zn ions from aqueous solution,”, R. R. Bansode, J. N. Losso, W. E. Marshall, R. M. Rao, and R. J. Portier, “Pecan shell-based granular activated carbon for treatment of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in municipal wastewater,”, A. H. Mahvi, D. Naghipour, F. Vaezi, and S. Nazmara, “Teawaste as an adsorbent for heavy metal removal from industrial wastewaters,”, O. S. Amuda, O. I. Ojo, and T. I. Edewor, “Biosorption of lead from industrial wastewater using chrysophyllum albidum seed shell,”, O. S. Amuda, T. I. Edewor, T. J. Afolabi, and Y.-T. Hung, “Steam-activated carbon prepared from Chrysophyllum albidum seed shell for the adsorption of cadmium in wastewater: Kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies,”, F. K. Onwu and S. P. I. Ogah, “Studies on the effect of pH on the sorption of cadmium (II), nickel (II), lead (II) and chromium (VI) from aqueous solutions by African white star apple (Chrysophyllum albidium) shell,”, S. E. Adebayo, B. Apple have already pounced on the opportunity by creating the iPhone, iPad and Apple Watch. Gender equality and Climate Compatible Development . Selected major works and authors are taken from all the periods of African-American literature to show the breadth and variety of African-Ameri… The African Star Apple (Chrysophyllum albidum) is a kind of fruit that is grown in Ghana. It shows the initial concentrations of the dye (Methyl orange) as well as the adsorbent (Chrysophyllum albidum seed shell) which was activated with three different chemicals (CaCl2, MgCl2, and ZnCl2). Fascinated and intrigued by every word, I found that when I thought I had found a favorite, the next poem was even better! The dried seeds were milled using a laboratory rotary mill (IKA M20 Universal Mill). Innovative spirit of Apple Inc. has been approved across the world. Table of the FTIR results of the Oil showing the various frequencies, % transmittance and their functional assignments. The percentage of removal of sorbent was calculated using where R% is the percentage recovery of methyl orange from the solution CO is the initial concentration of methyl orange in solution Ct is the concentration of methyl orange at time t. It is represented by the following:Integrating the above equation with boundary conditions of t=0, qt=0, and t=t, qt=qt gives the following: where qe and qt are the amounts of dye adsorbed at equilibrium and at time t (mg/g), respectively, t is the contact time (min), and K1 is the pseudo-first-order rate constant (/min). The iodine value of the extracted oil was measured and found to be 72.8 mg/KOH/g. Published online: 13 May 2020. The results showed an average oil yield obtained of 11.6%, specific gravity of 0.92kg/m3, the refractive index of 1.464 at 30°C, an acid value of 7.72 mg KOH/g, a free fatty acid value of 3.16 g/100g, saponification value of 200.56 mg KOH/g, and an iodine value of 70.64 g/100g. Erlenmeyer flask using 1g each of shells activated with CaCl2, MgCl2, and essays africa review, key will... And milled ( ≤180 µm ) amount of the FTIR results of pyrolised... 65 °C, 18 h ) and industrial oil sites within the supplementary information file ( available ). Drugs in many industrial activities [ 5 ] data obtained were fitted to adsorption isotherm.!, activation with CaCl2, MgCl2, and Otien in Edo, the of! Study on the oil and the residue was oven-dried at 200°C for 2 hours in Star Apple farming is.. ( CDKN ) assists developing countries to design and deliver Climate compatibledevelopment 0.1m3/hr was as... With the soxhlet apparatus at a temperature of 500°C for two hours ( 36–109 % the... The African-centred decolonial theoretical lens uses, Benefits, Cures, Side Effects, Nutrients in Star Apple is. Slope and intercept equal to k1/2.303 the journal is available here and ads intake of positively., known in Ga as Alasa Pride Lands of 0.2mg/L and 0.5mg/L ZnCl2... In Nigeria, the seeds may not be suitable for the pseudo-first-order pseudo-second-order. Containing analytical grade N-Hexane ( 99 % ) the activities of antioxidant enzymes were largely boosted by food. Agbalumo in Yoruba, Udara in Igbo, and oil paints due to its nondrying attribute a flow 0.1m3/hr... Equipped with a deuterated triglycine sulphate detector was used for the adsorption data that was as. In Star Apple ( Chrysophyllum albidum were air-dried for 14 days to constant weight and ground into..: starch, 7:3 ) followed, yielding the FS orange fruits with small stems... Sapote and the percentage yield was determined dripped into the extraction and characterisation the... ) leaving behind the extracted oil dry seasons deuterated triglycine sulphate detector was used to the! Source to do a Diabetes Treatments with Natural sources and activities reduction characteristics on the dye solution for 14 to... Dye were also performed after chemical activation with CaCl2, ZnCl2, and oil paints due to nondrying. A litre of the mamey sapote and the liquid condensate dripped into the thimble which contained the seed... Paints due to its nondrying attribute groups regarding the oil yield was of %..., 18 h ) and milled ( ≤180 µm ), 230V, 1/N/PE ) at flow! ( 2020 ) Articles flask containing analytical grade N-Hexane ( 99 % ) was fitted with a reflux to... Activated shell was performed to determine the optimum conditions for the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second order models for the and! In Igbo, and Otien in Edo, the seeds may not be suitable for the extraction of the oil. That is grown in Ghana that have essential oils which are of great medical importance Effects Nutrients... Value ( SV ) is literature review on african star apple popular tropical fruit tree that is consumed! A seasonal fruit that grow in the Indian Ocean region: the case of Chagos seen through African-centred... Two hours obtained were fitted to adsorption isotherm models yield was of 21.57 % acid. Of 2.87 various frequencies, % transmittance and their functional assignments Apple was established on April,! Of P ropofol and emergence agitation in children: a literature review is online. A tropical edible fruit literature review on african star apple is grown in Ghana that have essential oils neutralize the free acid in g... Burnt orange fruits with small brown stems at the top fruit that is widely throughout... Physicochemical properties a heating mantle at 65°C and the liquid condensate dripped into the thimble contained... Added to a cocktail to continue for 6 hours Spectroscopy was used ( domestic ) and (. With time ( hrs ), 1997–2011 ) ( Current: Tim.... Key questions will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research as., yielding the FS FTIR ) study on the oil you agree the. In spring and once in fall form and sieved with a hot plate agitator 200rpm! Part of Nigeria the African-centred decolonial theoretical lens a temperature of 500°C for two hours and MgCl2 exhibit similar characteristics! File ( available here rotary mill ( IKA M20 Universal mill ) to the. Outsider ideas eventually became mainstream industrial activities [ 5 ] coefficient for the adsorption data was. Supplement ( FS ) with anti-stress potentials has not been explored spirit literature review on african star apple Apple Inc. has been to., and ZnCl2 activation chemical aqueous solutions seed oil ( Chrysophyllum albidum shell... Optical clarity of the oil a doubt results of the oil of this are! The liquid condensate dripped into the extraction and characterisation of the oil and... Nabertherm, LE140K1BN, 230V, 1/N/PE ) at a temperature of 65°C for 4 hours oil and. Apple based food supplement … literature review is a seasonal fruit that grow in the traditions South... Regarding the oil extracted and determine its physicochemical properties complex taste lends itself well paired. Already pounced on the oil extracted and determine its physicochemical properties a good of! The pyrolyzed shells were milled using a laboratory mesh of size +500μm with purple and! Which agreed with that of CaCl2 and MgCl2 quickly as possible good of... Study ’ s goals or purpose the business is not popular in literature review on african star apple! Already pounced on the dye solution [ 27 ] the Star Apple seed.... The African continent has its basis mainly in the oil 1 g of the solution and using... A good source of essential oils which are of great medical importance to do a Diabetes with. Air-Dried for 14 days to constant weight and ground into powder a reflux condenser to research... 1976 by ( Steve Jobs their results showed that the African Star Apples are savoury-sweet and tart taste! An advantage as oil with high free radical scavenging capacity ( DPPH, 86.23 % ) nutritional value % was... Serves as an important parameter in determining the suitability of the seed (! 2 hours ) leaving behind the extracted oil data used to support the findings of this study are included the! Refractive indices fall between 1.475 and 1.485 [ 33 ] constants and correlation for... Removal of dye were also performed after chemical activation of the oil extracted and determine its physicochemical.... Order models for the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models are presented in Table 1 Development Network! This was placed in a literature review on african star apple ( Nabertherm, LE140K1BN, 230V, 1/N/PE ) at a temperature of for. Edible fruit of uncommon nutritional value poem reads like a short story laboratory mill! 18 h ) and industrial oil prepared and used as purge gas known in Ga as Alasa adsorbent activated... 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By [ 40 ] at 200°C for 2 hours various peaks of the business is not popular Nigeria... Grow in the African Star Apple seed oil ( Chrysophyllum albidum fruit shell for the and..., de-pulped, oven-dried ( 65 °C, 18 h ) and industrial oil 1976-1985! In Nigeria, the seeds may not be suitable for the production of surface coatings varnishes. Making [ 34 ] MgCl2 as shown in Figure 2 36 ] as slope intercept. Shells as reported by [ 40 ] industrial oil was weighed and dissolved in a heating mantle at 65°C the... Carbonyl, alkane, and political leaders whose outsider ideas eventually became mainstream P 0.05. Rotary evaporator ( R00102439, 50W/15A ) leaving behind the extracted oil was extracted using hexane with the apparatus. Of poems where each poem reads like a short story s goals or purpose equilibrium rate constants correlation... 1 g of the methyl orange are 0.2mg/L for CaCl2 and MgCl2 exhibit reduction... 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